John Paviour of Bedford. Tailor, Congregationalist, Preacher, Public Servant and keen Anti-Vaccinator
John’s sad early background
John had a difficult start in life but managed to overcome it to become a respected citizen and public servant of Bedford. He was born on 24 November 1839 and baptized on 29 December at St John’s Church, Bedford, the second child and eldest son of parents William and Mary, living in the St John’s area of Bedford. A daughter, Mary, had been born to them in 1838 but died in infancy in November of that year. William (b 1806, Bedford) had married Mary Bayes (b 1813, Bedford) at St John’s Church Bedford on 12 January 1838. The 1841 census records John aged 1 living on the High Street, St John’s, with his father William, a carpenter, his mother Mary and grandfather Thomas aged 80, who died in 1845. 2 brothers Thomas and William and a sister Martha followed before tragedy hit.
Death of the parents
Their mother Mary died on 22 December 1848, aged 35. Their father’s unmarried sister, Mary Ann Paviour, then assisted with the care of the family and is recorded in the 1851 census living next door to William at 73 Ampthill Street with William’s daughter, 6-year-old Martha. William lived at number 72 with the boys, John (11) and young William (3) The other child Thomas (9) was living on Harpur Street with other boy and girl scholars aged 8-14 at the Bedford Charity Hospital. This was provided by the Bedford Charity for the education and maintenance of 50 needy children in the Borough.
Aunt Mary Ann Paviour took over when their father died in June 1852, leaving the 4 children orphans. Sadly, Thomas died in December 1853 while living at the Bedford Charity Hospital where he was a scholar and is buried in St Paul’s churchyard.
Mary Ann Paviour died in September 1854. Her burial record shows that at the time of death she was an inmate of the Asylum of Springfield, Kempston, a private asylum opened in 1837 for both ‘paupers and lunatics’ as the County Asylum was overcrowded. Her will, made on 13th January 1853 and proved after her death on October 5th 1854, specified that all her personal effects should be sold and the proceeds invested in savings in the Bank of Bedford ‘or similar security’ for the children of her late brother William. The value of the estate was found to be under £100.
All the Paviours whose deaths predated the opening of Foster Hill Road Cemetery in 1855 were buried in St John’s Churchyard with the exception of Thomas at St Paul’s.
John attended the Alderman Newton Charity School following the death of his mother from June 1849 when he was 9 until May 1852. Alderman Newton, an Alderman in the Borough of Leicester, had established the charity on 15th Mach 1760. The rents and profits of certain freehold estates were to be paid to the Mayor and Corporation of Bedford for the clothing and education of 25 boys aged 7-14 who were ‘necessitous’ and members of the Established Church of England. It would also pay for a schoolmaster to teach the boys. The charity still exists today and makes grants of up to £500 to certain young people in Bedford aged 13-25 for broadly educational purposes.
John trains as a tailor through the Harpur Trust Apprenticeship scheme.
His father died in June 1852, so he was only 11 when he had lost both parents. The Harpur Trust Charity was able to come to his aid when he reached the age of 14. Apprenticeship fees could be paid for boys aged 13-15 if their parents had lived in Bedford for 10 years. Lots were drawn twice a year for 15 boys to benefit. John was one of the fortunate ones to be selected and on 24th December 1853 he was apprenticed to George Sanders, a tailor in Dunstable, until he was 21. In John’s case the Indenture specified that a fee of £30 would be paid by the Harpur Trust to George Sanders: £10 at the beginning of the apprenticeship, a further £10 on 5th February 1857 at the end of the 3rd year and the final payment on 6th January 1859 at the end of the 5th year. The Indenture also specified some rules for the apprentice: he must not frequent inns, taverns or such like, he must not engage in cards, dice, or gambling and he must not marry. In return his master George Sanders agreed to teach John his trade, provide food, clothing, washing and lodging, which must include a separate bed. A certificate of behaviour was required by the Trust from the master at the end. There was a broadly similar scheme for girls which John’s sister Martha benefited from. The 1861 census records her ‘apprentice milliner and dress maker’ living with Eliza Woodman in Leighton Buzzard.
Connections with the Bunyan Meeting House
John’s Aunt, Mary (Ann) Paviour joined the Bunyan Meeting on 12th February 1818 according to the church roll and was a ‘well known worker’ (Bedfordshire Times February 1914) until her death in 1854. John ‘identified with the Bunyan Meeting from his early days of childhood’ (Bedfordshire Times, February 1914) and the Church Minute Book shows that he was admitted as a member on 4th April 1861 on a recommendation from Dunstable where he had completed his apprenticeship as a tailor. It appears that he was connected with various branches of the Free Churches. As a boy the Bunyan Sunday School register records his attendance and when he left as ‘gone to Wesleyan’ Sunday School. According to the obituary in February 1914, John, as a Congregationalist, was a popular local preacher with ‘an interest in village churches both of the Howard and Baptist Connexion’ and his services were ‘in considerable demand’.
The Church Minute Book shows other members of the Paviour family being admitted as members of the Bunyan Meeting and the Sunday School Registers reveal many Paviour children in attendance.
John Paviour and the Anti-Vaccination Movement
John was a firm opponent of compulsory vaccination against smallpox.
In the late 1790s Edward Jenner developed his vaccination against smallpox after the successful experiment of injecting a small amount of cowpox into 9-year-old James Phipps, the son of his gardener, in order to gain smallpox immunity. In 1798 he published an account of his research, followed by details of the following experiments he had conducted to show that cowpox protected against smallpox.
Dangers of smallpox
Smallpox was an acute, highly contagious, and often fatal disease. It was especially virulent in infants and children and there had been many outbreaks in the 18th century as urbanization and increased density of population took place. It accounted for a high percentage of deaths in England’s major towns, and it was reported that when it swept through a village up to 50% of the residents died. Those who survived it were often left blind or disfigured facially for life.
Initial opposition to vaccination
In spite of the regular incidences of deadly smallpox the medical profession was initially sceptical about the use of Jenner’s vaccination and many were opposed to the idea. Problems at first included shortages of the cowpox virus and failure to keep it sterile. Some religious leaders believed it was ‘unchristian’ because it came from an animal. Not least were the vested interests of those doctors who ran profitable private clinics which used previous attempts at prevention through a less efficient process called ‘variolation’. This involved inoculating a person with a small amount of the smallpox virus in a special clinic under controlled conditions in the hope of avoiding a serious bout, but it was a lengthy and expensive procedure, and certainly not always successful.
Government legislation on vaccination
Originally the government had a ‘laissez-faire’ attitude to health, believing that it was not its role to interfere in the health of the people. However, gradually in the 19th century it began to realize that it had to take action to avoid deadly waves of cholera, with the Public Health Act of 1848. Likewise, it took action with regard to smallpox.
The Vaccination Act 0f 1853 ordered compulsory vaccination for infants up to 3 months old. This was extended in the Vaccination Act of 1867 to children of up to 14 years old, and execution of the act was tightened up, urging Boards of Guardians to enforce it strictly.
John Paviour’s reaction
At first John appears to have towed the line as Bedfordshire Archives have a copy of his daughter Mary Ann’s Vaccination Certificate, dated 1865, the year she was born.
Vaccination certificate of Mary Ann Paviour, John’s daughter.
Reaction against compulsory vaccination
There were mounting objections to the compulsory clauses and Anti-Vaccination Leagues and Journals sprang up all over the country. The Bedford and District League for the Repeal of the Vaccination Act was formed. John Paviour became a convinced anti-vaccinator and one of the anti-vaccination leaders in Bedford.
Reasons for his objections
John was a great admirer of William Gladstone, the Liberal British Prime Minister for 4 terms of office: 1868-74, 1880-85, 1886 and 1892-4 (lastly aged 82). Gladstonian Liberalism stood for freedom of choice and self- help for the individual, following the Christian tradition of liberty, and a ‘laissez-faire’/neutral attitude of government in the health of the people.
Prosecution of John
Records from Bedford Petty Sessions show that on 17 January 1881 John was fined 6d (half a shilling) for ‘neglect to vaccinate’ his son Thomas Horace. On 13th March 1882 John was again fined for his failure to have Thomas Horace vaccinated. This time he was fined 1 shilling and had to pay 6 shillings costs. The Bedford Gaol book of 23rd October 1882 records his presence in Bedford Gaol for the same crime of non-vaccination. This time, aged 43, John’s sentence was a fine of 32 shillings or 14 days in goal. He eventually paid the fine and was discharged on 25th October.
Many others listed in Bedford newspapers were fined as the local authority was unsympathetic, and The Bedford and County Record of 16 November 1889 prints, at the request of the Rev. Dr. Brown of the Bunyan Meeting Church, the names of the anti-vaccination supporters who contributed to the fines, including ‘Mrs Paviour’ (John’s wife) who donated one shilling on that occasion.
Growing opposition to compulsory vaccination
There were increasing protests of Anti-Vaccination Leagues in 1880s and 1890s. In Leicester in the 1885 an angry march of between 80,000 and 100,000 took place, and in 1896 the National Anti-Vaccination League was formed. The playwright George Bernard Shaw wrote a letter of support, describing the vaccination process as ‘rubbing the contents of the dustpan into the wound’.
Anti-Vaccinators support for Samuel Whitbread in Bedford
On the eve of the 1892 General Election, at an election meeting at the Corn Exchange, the chairman read out a telegram from a prominent member of the Anti-Vaccination movement urging support for the Liberal candidate for Bedford, Samuel Whitbread. ‘Anti-Vaccinators should do their utmost for Mr Whitbread’. (Beds Times and Independent 9 July 1892) He was duly elected as M.P.
Local Government Rule Changes In 1892 Bedfordshire’s local laws preventing unvaccinated children from entering higher level schools in Bedford were removed.
Change of National Government policy
The mass agitation led to a change of national government attitude. In 1896, while recommending vaccination against smallpox, a Commission suggested that the penalties for failing to vaccinate should be removed. The 1898 Vaccination Act included a ‘conscientious objector’ clause, whereby parents who did not believe in the vaccination for a variety of reasons could obtain an exemption certificate. No doubt John Paviour would have felt exonerated for his actions in opposition.
John’s Public Service for Bedford
In February 1891 John was elected to the Committee of Management of the Central Provident Dispensary in Bedford. These Dispensaries were set up increasingly in the nineteenth century, funded by voluntary subscription, to provide medical treatment for those of little means, generally free of charge.
In December 1894 John stood for election to the Bedford Board of Guardians of the Bedford Poor Law Union for St John’s parish and was successful. The Bedfordshire Times reported that he was cheered as the ‘hero of St John’s’ as he had beaten his opponent, J.E. Cutliffe, by 56 votes to 44. He was described as one of the ‘Progressives’. There was a strong feeling that new blood was needed, especially in the light of certain ‘irregularities’ in the administration of the Workhouse and the Poor Law in general. They wanted a more humane interpretation of the Poor Law and treatment of the inmates. Also they felt there should be no discrimination in dress for the children who attended the town schools. The number of Guardians had been increased to 19 and all 19 ‘Progressives’ swept the board’ resulting in a number of local dignitaries including Rev. Hart Smith and Charles Wells losing
their seats. John continued to serve on the Board of Guardians until 1907 when he found the work too much for him.
John’s Personal life
His early childhood was difficult with his parents’ early deaths. However, following a successful apprenticeship, he returned to Bedford in 1860 to set up in business.
On 26th December 1860 John, aged 21, married Emma Davy at Beachampton, Buckinghamshire. Emma’s parents were George Davy (1801-1865) and Mary Ann Pilkington (1806-1887) George, a tailor, was born in Bletchley, and Mary Ann was born in Wolverton, both in Buckinghamshire. They had married in Beachampton on 1 January 1824 and Emma was their 5th child of eight children. Emma supported John loyally in all his activities.
Emma died on 2 October 1906 and is buried in Foster Hill Road Cemetery. Grave ref: B3 35
John died on 25 February 1914. His obituary in the Bedfordshire Times and Independent reflects the high regard in which he was held. He is buried close to his wife and daughter. Grave Ref: B3 24
The Children of John and Emma
There were 11 children, 4 sons and 7 daughters. 9 children were alive on the death of John in 1914.
Two unmarried daughters predeceased him:
Emma Rachel, their first child, born in 1861, died aged 17 in 1878. She is buried in FHR Cemetery. Grave ref: C10 138
Emma Rachel’s gravestone. It is badly degraded, but her name is just discernible.
Martha Upton, born in 1869, died suddenly at 27 Argyll Street, Bedford, aged 38 in 1908. Unmarried, she was the Housekeeper for the Mayor’s Sergeant and Coroner’s officer, John Dixon. The postmortem returned a verdict of Natural Causes, probably due to ‘hemorrage (sic) of the lungs’ according to the doctor. She shares a gravestone with John and Emma. Grave Ref: B3 34
Three daughters were married:
Florence Ada, born in 1867, married Frank Parrott, a butcher, on 7 April 1890 and in the 1901 census was living on Pembroke Street, Bedford with her husband and daughter Ethel, aged 8. In 1911 she and Ethel were living with her father John on Ampthill Street. Frank was living with his father Joseph and sisters Annie and Mary on Park Road West. Frank died in September 1924 and is buried with Joseph who died in October 1913 in FHR. Grave Ref: B4 149
Joseph’s wife, Elizabeth, died in June 1906 and is buried in a nearby grave. Grave Ref: B4 138
There is no longer a gravestone, as the joint one for Joseph, Elizabeth and Frank was removed in March 1974 according to the Gravestones’ Removal Book.
Florence died in Eastbourne in 1936 and was buried elsewhere.
Jessie Laura, born in 1873, married Alfred Setchell, a Dispenser of Medicines and Bookkeeper in 1895, and lived on Howbury Street, Bedford until moving to Spenser Road. Alfred was born in 1871 and died at Spenser Road in 1943. Jesse died there in 1951. They are buried in a joint grave.
Alfred is inscribed on the inside of the kerbstone. Jesse is added on a tablet.
Jessie and Alfred’s grave
The tablet adding Jessie’s name
Also mentioned on the inside of the kerbstone is their son Alfred Knight Setchell who was wounded, missing and assumed Killed in Action on 21 March 1918. This was the start of the German Spring Offensive which they hoped, forlornly, would win the war for them. A former scholar of Bedford Modern School, he had enlisted in the Bedfordshire Regiment in 1916 and was serving with the Norfolk Regiment 9th Battalion on his death at the age of 20. He is commemorated on Bay 3 of the Arras Memorial, as he has no known grave.
Ethel Grace, born in 1878, married Holmes Fred Travell, a baker, in 1902, and lived in Leighton Buzzard. She died there in 1925. He died in 1965 in Amersham, Buckinghamshire.
Two daughters alive on John’s death in 1914 were unmarried:
Mary Ann, born in 1865, had been given the name of her aunt who looked after the orphan John until she died. This Mary Ann was in service in Kew, London and in Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire. She lived until 1945, dying in Bedford on 30 August at the age of 80. She shares a grave with her sister Kate Margaret and their unmarried Aunt Martha Paviour.
Kate Margaret was born in 1875. She was a teacher of music, having gained the A.L.C.M. qualification (Associate of the London College of Music) The local newspapers carried regular advertisements for her services in the teaching of pianoforte and theory of music. There were newspaper announcements of her pupils’ successes in examinations of Trinity College of Music. She was also a talented singer and she is recorded as the soloist at a number of local functions.
One of the regular advertisements in the Bedford newspapers
She died 0n 11 June 1963 in Bedford and is buried with her sister Mary Ann and Aunt Martha. Grave Ref: D5 211
The gravestone of Martha (aunt) Mary Ann and Kate Margaret Paviour
All four boys were alive on John’s death in 1914:
John William was the eldest son. He was born in Bedford in 1863 and followed his father’s trade as a tailor, working with him for a while. In 1887 he married Emma Fowler who was also born in Bedford. Poor Law records show that she was living with her widowed, disabled mother in receipt of poor relief in 1876 at the age of 14. In the 1881 census she was recorded as a dressmaker, living on The Grove with her stepfather and her remarried mother. In the 1891 census, after her marriage, she and John William were living on Queen Street, Bedford with a daughter, Lilian aged 3.
John William seems to have shared his father’s hostility to compulsory vaccination against smallpox. In March 1889 he was fined 1 shilling with 6 shillings costs to avoid 7 days imprisonment for failure to have Lilian vaccinated within 3 months of birth.
In 1892 a son James Fowler was born to John William and Emma, but there is no record of a further prosecution for non-vaccination.
Sometime between 1892 and 1895, John William, Emma and the children moved to South Africa. They lived at Aliwal North, Cape Colony, where their other 2 children were born: Stella in 1895 and William John in 1896. Aliwal was probably a good place for a tailor to be living as some British regiments were stationed at the garrison there, requiring uniforms. There was also a Concentration camp there for Boer POWs, 1900-1902.
The 1901 census records Emma and 4 children, Lilian (12) James (8) Stella (6) and William (4) living back in Bedford. It appears that John William stayed in South Africa and may have sent his family to safety in England due to the Boer War (1899-1902) Emma met with a serious cycling accident during this stay but fortunately was well enough to return to South Africa.
The Bedfordshire Mercury. Friday 18th July 1902
The family was back together in South Africa in 1906 living in East London when the sad death of William John aged 10 was recorded. In February 1914 when John senior died, the Bedford newspapers noted that John William was not present at his father’s funeral as he was in South Africa. It appears that he did return again briefly in June 1916 when he was recorded sailing on his own to Plymouth from East London on the Durham Castle. Again, he visited in 1930 on the Carrnarvon Castle arriving in Southampton.
Emma died in East London, South Africa on 15 July 1925 aged 63.
John William died in East London on 29 August 1942, aged 79 and 3 months. Both are buried in the East Cemetery, East London, South Africa.
George Davy was the 2nd son of John and Emma, born in Bedford in 1867. He was given his mother’s maiden name of Davy as his middle name. In the 1881 census he was recorded at the age of 14 as a tailor, following the trade of his father and of his mother Emma who was recorded as ‘tailoress’.
In September 1892 George married Gertrude Lucy Corner in Eastbourne, Sussex. Her father was a house decorator. The marriage certificate notes George as ‘Police Constable’. He had been appointed Constable on one month’s trial in May 1892, after serving 7 years in the Royal Engineers. Constable John Paviour, George’s great-uncle, the brother of his grandfather William, and uncle of John Paviour, (tailor) had been the successful Constable of the Borough of Bedford. Bedford unusually paid its constables; John had been paid a salary of 10 shillings and 6 pence and qualified for pension rights. He is recorded in the 1851 census as ‘Superannuated Policeman’ living at Pilcroft Street, aged 48. He died the following year and was buried in St John’s churchyard in July 1852, 1 month after his brother William was buried there.
George was less successful as Constable. After three misdemeanors, the final one being asleep on night duty from 11.45 p.m. to 6.45 a.m. on 14 July 1893 ‘leaving the whole beat unprotected’, he was fined five shillings and severely cautioned. The following year on 4th May he resigned. He then appears to have returned to tailoring. He was living with his family in the London area in the 1901 and 1911 census.
Aged 46 he enlisted in the army reserves of the Royal Engineers, his previous regiment, on the outbreak of World War 1. He survived the war and eventually died in Surrey aged 82 in 1948. His wife Lucy died in Surrey the following year aged 83.
Harry James was born in 1870, the 3rd son of John and Emma. He followed the family trade as a tailor, although the 1911 census records him as ’Draper’. He is listed in a number of Bedford trade directories as ‘tailor’.
In 1894 Harry married Angelina Dixon, also of Bedford. Her father was a waiter. By the 1911 census they were living on Gadsby Street with 3 daughters and a son. He joined the Bunyan Meeting like many of his family in sympathy with the congregational tradition. He was involved in public service to encourage adult education before the days of universal school education. The Bedfordshire Times and Independent notes an occasion on January 1912 when he gave a lecture to Bedford Adult School in the Cooperative Hall on Samuel Coleridge, and he also introduced the Bible Study: ‘The Passing of the Year’.
Harry and Angelina had an infant daughter whom they named Jessie, who died at the age of 10 days in September 1897. She was their first born and they went on to have 4 more children mentioned in the 1911 census who survived well into adulthood. Jessie is buried at FHR close to her aunt Emma Rachel. Grave Ref: C10 149
Angelina died on 23rd October 1939, aged 69.
Harry died on 19th October 1955, aged 84. They have a joint gravestone. Grave Ref: Q 263
The joint gravestone leaning a long way forward
The inscription is on the underside and problematic to photograph.
The inscription contained a verse of a popular congregational hymn:
I long for household voices gone,
For vanished smiles I long;
But God hath led my dear ones on,
And he can do no wrong.
Thomas Horace was born in April 1880, the youngest of the 11 children of John and Emma. In 1901 he is recorded living with his parents at 7 Ampthill Street, as ‘Carpenter’. In 1903 he married Alice Dennis, also of Bedford, whose father was a carpenter. In the 1911 census he is recorded as ‘joiner’ living with Alice and his wife’s parents on Newnham Street.
Thomas served in the Boer War (1899-1902) sometimes referred to as ‘The South African War’ in which the British were fighting the Boers of Dutch origin in the days of Empire. The Bedfordshire Mercury reported on 1 November 1901 at the Town Hall on 30 October, ‘The Presentation of The Honorary Freedom of the Borough to Volunteers and Imperial Yeoman’ from Bedford who survived the fighting. Thomas Horace Paviour was one of the recipients. Each man was presented with a personal parchment, and that evening was entertained to a celebratory dinner.
He enlisted in the Royal Engineers in World War 1. He survived the war and received the British War and Victory medals.
In the 1939 register he is noted as ‘Prison Officer’ aged 59 living in Winchester with his wife Alice aged 57 and an unmarried daughter Connie aged 34.
Thomas died in Portsmouth, Hampshire, on 1 March 1955 aged 74.
Alice died in Hampshire in July 1957 aged 76.
Martha Paviour, sister of John and aunt to all his children, was born at the end of 1844 but not baptized until September 1849 at St John’s Church, Bedford. (Her two brothers, Thomas and William were baptized in July 1849 at the same church). She was an orphan by 1852 as both parents had died. In the 1861 census she was serving an apprenticeship as a milliner living with Eliza Woodman and her children in Leighton Buzzard. By 1871 she was living in Hampstead, London as a governess.
At some stage after this she appears to have emigrated to the USA as no record of her has been found in England after 1871. Possible listings: in 1898 a ‘Miss M Paviour’ sailed from London to New York on the ‘Boadicea’, no occupation listed; In 1913 ‘Martha Paviour, teacher’ sailed from Liverpool to NY. There is a reference to a ‘Martha Paviour’, single, occupation ‘millenary’ (sic) in the US Federal Census of 1880, living in Brooklyn, New York. There are several references over a number of years in trade directories to ‘Martha Paviour’ living in Connecticut, USA, as ‘milliner’. Her work appears to have been successful in the USA as Probate revealed that she left a substantial sum of money.
Passenger shipping registers confirm her presence in USA as she sailed to England on 12 August 1928, from New York to Liverpool on the ship ‘Adriatic’. Her ‘proposed address’ on the register was 61 Spenser Road, Bedford. Her niece Jessie and husband Alfred Setchell were living on Spenser Road at the time so possibly that was her temporary address on arrival in Bedford. Electoral Registers show that she lived on Grove Place from 1929-32. Her address on her death on 9 February 1933 was Foster Hill Road. She shares a grave with her 2 unmarried nieces: Mary Ann and Kate Margaret. (above) Grave Ref: D5 211
Sydney/Sidney Paviour was born in 1888 and died 5 months later. His burial took place on 3 April 1889. His birth registration used ‘Sydney’ but his death registration was recorded as Sidney. His address was Ampthill Street, St John’s, Bedford. His parents are unknown. Grave Ref: A 238
Origin of the surname ‘Paviour’
The interesting surname has variant forms: Pavier, Pavior, Paviour and Pavyer,. It is of medieval French origin and is an occupational name for a layer of pavements, the ‘pavior’ or paver. The status and skill of the paver varied from the masters of the craft to labourers, the more skilled being men of standing.
John Paviour’s Family Tree
– Censuses 1841-1911
– Family Search, including Richard Johnson on South African connection.
-Steve Gibbs- Bedfordshire Church Registers
-Find a Grave- FHR Cemetery
-Parliamentary Gazette of England and Wales 1840
-Will of Mary Ann Paviour 1853
-Apprenticeship Indenture, John Paviour, 24 December 1853
-Certificate of Vaccination, Mary Ann Paviour, 1865
-Bedford Petty Sessions Records:
13 March 1882
4 March 1889
-Bedford Gaol Register 23 October 1882
-Bedford Borough Police Book 1892-4
-Bunyan Meeting Roll Book
-Register of Boys attending Sunday School at Bunyan Meeting 1870-9
-Register of Girls attending Sunday School at Bunyan Meeting 1870-9
-Bunyan Church Minute Book Vol 2
-History of Alderman Newton Charity
-Bedfordshire Times and Independent- several references
-Bedfordshire Mercury- several references
-US Federal Census 1880
-US City Directories 1822-1995
-UK and Ireland, Incoming Passenger Lists 1878-1960
-Friends of FHR Cemetery: Linda, Colin, Anni, for much helpful information
-Jim Godbolt- John Paviour’s family tree and help with photography
October 01, 2023
September 02, 2023
August 21, 2023